Category Archives: Global Warming

Thinking about Sea Ice and Model Predictions

My sense is that the global climate models (GCM) have generally done a poor job of projecting loss of sea ice and I think this is important because the change in albedo with loss of sea ice is a positive feedback that could trigger other positive feedback loops (like release of CO2 and CO2e gases from permafrost, ocean floor, etc.)

So, I am searching a little to see if my sense about the GCM sloppiness on sea ice is correct.  Here is what I find:

at Arctic Deeply:

“In September 2007, Arctic sea ice levels reached a dramatic and unexpected new low, tumbling to 4.154 million square kilometers (1.6 million square miles) – roughly 40 percent smaller than what it had been in the 1980s. Summer sea ice melt was far outpacing the models produced by scientists, prompting scientists to join together internationally to produce monthly reports on the anticipated state of the Arctic sea ice based on their individual assessments.”  (emphasis added).

So, the models were not doing a good job in 2007 and the scientists jumped in to improve the models and predictions.  Then I find this article in Carbon Brief from 2014:

Why aren’t climate models better at predicting Arctic sea ice loss?

Looks like they had not gotten a lot better from 2007 to 2014.

On current state of sea ice loss science, I find the following websites that may be accurate and informative:

Sea Ice Prediction Network

Arctic Sea Ice Predictions

But the bottom line still appears to be that the models can only be fairly accurate if they are initiated on a monthly basis, so I think that indicates the complexity and dynamic nature of sea ice loss is just beyond our GCM models absent a monthly reset to correct to observed conditions.  Maybe I have this wrong?

Earth Day? Olympia Port of Commissioners Political Action

The Port of Olympia continues to move fracking materials from China to the Bakken Formation in North Dakota.  I think that makes the Port an accessory to murder of the planet.

We have some work to do with the Port of Olympia Commissioners.  We continue to talk to the three commissioners.  The next opportunity to speak to them is April 22nd at 5:30 pm at the LOTT Building.  If you want to sign a petition to ask the Commissoners to stop importing fracking materials, click on this link.

If you want to reach the commissioners by email or phone, click on the links below:

The Port of Olympia could be a cornerstone of sustainable South Sound economics, but it appears at this time that we have only one commissioner willing to vote for sustainable projects over simple economic projects.  That commissioner is George Barner.

We have another commissioner, Jeff Davis, talking a good game about the environment and actively engaged with Oly Enviro Activists, but so far refusing to commit to any changes in Port policy that would change the facts on the ground.

The last commissioner, Bill McGregor, appears to be tone-deaf to concerns about the environment.  From what I have heard from Bill, I think he is hopeless on the environment and we should simply work to replace him.

It takes a lot of energy to develop and sustain a Port action as activists who remember the 2007 Olympia Port Militarization Resistance may tell you, but there are times when it is necessary.  We may be in one of those times.

But we can take a shortcut to Port Revolution later this year through the election process.  Commissioners Davis and McGregor are both up for re-election later this year and replacing either or both of them with a Commissioner who is committed to a sustainable economy and environment would bring significant change.

Commissioner Jeff Davis represents District 3 which is the west third of Thurston County.  Dave Peeler has run for that position in the past and would bring strong environmental sensibilities to the Board. I am not aware that Dave Peeler has expressed any interest in running this year, but somebody should talk to him about that. I have heard rumors that other folks are considering a run, but nothing solid yet.

Commissioner McGregor represents District Two which is the eastern third of the County.  You have to live in the District to be an elected commissioner.  Can we find a good environmental candidate in District Two for this election?

April 29th is the first day the Auditor’s Office can accept filings by mail.  Filing week is May 13 to May 17.

We need a couple of folks to step in to the big shoes and help Thurston County reduce its carbon footprint.

Thurston County District Map

Scanning the News

A few items jumped out at me.

  •  WAPO says Obama is looking ahead to the 2014 congressional election because the current GOP house is hopeless. Our situation on the shore of the Salish Sea is the same, but it’s the Repub senate in WA State that is the big problem on the local level.  It worth noting that the US popular vote for House of Reps went solidly to the dems in 2012 despite a lot of vote suppression work, but thanks to successful district gerrymandering by the Republican Party.  I am not sanguine about the legislative results that derive from the Democratic Congress that Barack might dream about.  I am thinking we need to elect the climate congress at State and Federal level in 2014.  That would be a group who would actually act on global warming.  The dems talk the talk.  The Repubs talk denial by and large.  We need elected bodies who will walk the walk.  That would be a peaceful revolution to elect Climate Congress in 2014.  I am down with that.
  • Alternet reports that some important assumptions that underly the “science” of economics and human nature are probably wrong.  The study is controversial in several regards, but the results seem to indicate that economists and psychologists have viewed the world through the lens provided by studying human nature as it exists in industrialized communities and making an assumption about how the dominant paradigm of industrialized communities is human nature.  Oops.

  • More human nature stuff from Alternet and Globalpossibilities.org:
    Could feelings of disgust be the key to saving the planet from global warming? Strange as it might seem, the answer may be yes.

    Concern over environmental harm is disproportionately a liberal phenomena, but concern over violating the purity and sanctity of nature cuts across ideological lines. What’s more, it’s not an abstract concern. Violations of morality of the purity/sanctity kind are linked to a visceral disgust.

    This isn’t just idle speculation. A new series of studies suggests a potential way out of the polarized gridlock that’s crippled our national response to the threat of global warming. ” The Moral Roots of Environmental Attitudes,” by Matthew Feinberg and Robb Willer, published in Psychological Science in December, studied the impact of framing environmental communication in terms of different moral frameworks, and concluded that messaging based on the moral value of purity, which appeals primarily to conservatives, can help bridge the ideological divide on environmental issues—including global warming.

Spike Lee is correct:  Do the right thing.

Paul Cienfuegos on Community Rights Ordinances

Five minutes and 20 seconds.  Grab a cup of coffee and give Paul a listen.

Paul and I agree on a lot of things, but we both start from the point that single issue activism is not going to get the work done.

Paul is a TESC (The Evergreen State College) alum, here is Paul’s website. He has done trainings in Olympia and Shelton on community rights and helped Salish Sea activists shut down the biomass projects a couple of years ago.

We’re Not In Kansas Anymore

Hey, Toto.

2 big blizzards in a couple of weeks.  One of the complications of global warming is that the warmed atmosphere holds more water vapor and guess what?  More water vapor means heavier snowfalls.  Thanks to KansasCity.com

I scanned this piece quickly and did not see any mention of global warming or climate change.

Same thing last week in the mainstream coverage of the snowstorm.   Is it irresponsible not to give readers the background information?

Last week was Storm Q (I like the Blizzard of Oz name better).  This week is Storm R.

I did spot some coverage that referenced the fact that the last 100 year snowstorm was two years ago when I was scanning the news for mainstream connections to the largest global story – global warming, but I think that coverage did not mention global warming either.

Here is what Yahoo News is running on the second storm in two weeks:

DODGE CITY, Kan. (AP) — Blizzard conditions slammed parts of the central Plains Monday, forcing the closure of highways in the Texas and Oklahoma Panhandles and sending public works crews scrambling for salt and sand anew just days after a massive storm blanketed the region with snow.

National Weather Service officials in Kansas and Oklahoma issued blizzard warnings and watches through late Monday as the storm packing snow and high winds tracked eastward across West Texas toward Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri. Forecasters also warned of possible tornadoes further southeast.

Snow covered Amarillo, Texas, where forecasters said up to 18 inches could fall, accompanied by wind gusts up to 65 mph. Paul Braun, a spokesman for the Texas Department of Transport, said whiteout conditions and drifting snow had made all roads in the Texas Panhandle impassable. Interstate 40 was closed from Amarillo to the Oklahoma state line.

Want to read the whole story?  Go ahead.  Please let me know if they mention global warming.

February 17, 2013 at Heritage Park, 3 pm – Be There

Open rally in Olympia, Washington in support of the Washington DC Keystone XL Pipeline Demonstration.

We will be at Heritage Park with PA, music, speakers, tabling and general merriment.  Come and join us.

Want to help us send a message to Governor

Inslee?  Please sign on!   Want to sign the Credo Petition to Governor Inslee?  Please do.  It’s starts with a thought, it moves on to a click, can we move on to action and change?    We better.

Ok, working on the schedule:

  • John Prine – Paradise
  • 2:30 pm or maybe a little earlier we will have popup tents set up and music playing
  • somewhere around 2:30 or maybe a little later we have Crow Drummers  and we are off to dance and merriment.  Thanks to Oly Rhythm and Dance.  They can’t make it, but they helped us connect with Crow Drummers.  Thank you!
  • Around 3:10 our master of ceremonies Paul Pickett will speak and get us going
  • Schedule is firming up and looks like:
    • 3:20 We have a 30 second message from EXXON Hates Your Children.
    • 3:21  Beth Doglio with the No Coal Train campaign
    • 3:25  Chiara Dangelo -from the Coal Free PSE campaign.
    • 3:30  We will stream 4 minutes from RFK Jr. Let’s Go to the Barricades!
    • 3:35  County Commissioner Karen Valenzuela will speak
    • 3:42  Rhonda Hunter – will talk about climate change, what we can do about it
    • 3:47  Holly Gwinn Graham will sing and get us moving
    • 3:55  Gar Lipow will speak about Jobs and Green Energy
    • 4:02  Bourtai Hargrove will read her letter to Governor Inslee
    • 4:05  Lady Liberty and Olympia Raging Grannies will lead us in song and flash mob performance
    • 4:21  Zoltan Grossman on the Achilles Heel of the Fossil Fuel Industry
    • 4:25 We have invited President Carter to join by Skype, but no response yet, so we will have the The Hinges – Danny Kelly and Karen Hancock cover as we wait for phone call from Jimmy
    • 4:35  Glen Anderson on the moral dimensions of our struggle to prevent disastrous global warming
    • 4:38 Patricia Ridge will speak about climate change, how it impacts low income families and generational justice
    • 4:40 Greg Black takes over and plays some tunes for us

We will try to keep building and refining the schedule and answers to questions into this blog item and will update as often as possible.

More links:

Why are we getting out in February in Western Washington?

read’m and weep:

February 9, 2013 from the NYT:

Storm Leaves Northeast Reeling

 A gigantic midwinter storm buried the Northeast in snow on Saturday, leaving behind a debilitated and disoriented region digging through plump white drifts and reeling from gale-force winds.

Painting a white landscape from Maine to New York, the storm expressed itself much as weather forecasters had predicted. New York City eluded its worst bite, and muffled-up pedestrians trooped along slushy sidewalks as insouciantly as after any matter-of-fact winter snowfall. But points to the north and east were battered hard.

Read the whole piece?  No mention of global warming, but this is what global warming looks like.  More moisture in the atmosphere leads to heavier snow and rain.  We have to start connecting the dots and encouraging folks to understand that when they see a hundred year flood or snowstorm every two or three years – that is global warming.  It’s bad.  It’s going to get worse.   We have to start addressing it here and now.

here is a recent local story:

KUOW Radio January 31, 2013

Northwest on Verge of Becoming Pacific Crude Oil Gateway

ABERDEEN, Wash. – The Northwest is on the verge of becoming a gateway for crude oil. Three different developers have plans to use docks on Grays Harbor, Washington to transfer crude oil from trains to ships. Other projects are getting off the ground in Tacoma, Vancouver, B.C. and on the lower Columbia River.

There was a huge turnout Wednesday night at an introductory public workshop in Aberdeen, Washington. The response indicates crude-by-rail may be the region’s next big environmental controversy…
To hear / read the rest of the story

We are also gathering signatures and sending letters to Governor Jay Inslee regarding global warming and the need for change.  Here is the letter that Olympia Fellowship of Reconciliation has drafted:

AN OPEN LETTER TO GOVERNOR JAY INSLEE

 Office of the Governor
PO Box 40002
Olympia, WA 98504-0002

Call
360-902-4111
TTY/TDD users should contact the Washington Relay Service at 711 or 1-800-833-6388.

Fax
360-753-4110

Dear Governor Inslee:

          As citizens deeply concerned about the climate crisis, we were encouraged by the remarks you made in your inaugural address about the need to reduce the risk of climate change from carbon emissions. You specifically emphasized the need to “replace rhetoric with quantifiable results.” We hope this means that you will take immediate action to promote a progressive carbon tax, fund energy efficiency and renewable energy projects, and divest state funds from fossil fuels.

          As you know, we have a narrow window of time in which to reduce Co2 emissions before runaway, irreversible climate change condemns us to a global temperature rise of 4 to 6 degrees C. Unless we act immediately and with sufficient determination, we risk civilization as we know it. The only way to produce the necessary level of greenhouse gas reductions is a full-scale, all-hands-on-deck mobilization, what William James called “the moral equivalent of war.” We are asking you to become a leader in this fight, to proclaim the urgency of the climate crisis, and to make our state an example of how much can be done to reduce greenhouse gases in a short period of time.

          On February 17, 2013, thousands of people will converge on Washington D.C. to urge President Obama to reject the Keystone XL pipeline which would convey dirty tar sands oil to refineries and export ports in Gulf Coast. As climate scientist John Abraham, of the University of St. Thomas in Minnesota, said, “If we burn all the tar sand oil, the temperature rise, just from burning that tar sand will be half of what we’ve already seen.” James Hansen, probably the world’s pre-eminent climate scientist, is even more emphatic. Discussing the need to limit greenhouse gas emissions, he said, “If tar sands are thrown into the mix, it is game over for the planet.” In support of the action in Washington D.C., we are holding a No Keystone XL Pipeline rally in Olympia on Sunday, February 17th at 3:00 PM in Heritage Park. We invite you to join us and to use this protest to voice your opposition to the expansion of the Alberta tar sands.

          In the past you have recognized that the proposed coal export terminals for the Northwest, pose the “largest decision our state will be making from a carbon pollution standpoint, certainly in my lifetime, and nothing even comes close to it.” In an interview with Grist magazine, you said “I’m going to be giving some thought to this.” We hope that you have since recognized that the proposed coal exports from the Northwest are a carbon bomb, which could potentially produce enough Co2 to push the planet towards catastrophic climate chaos. We hope that you have since thought of significant ways that you, as Governor, can defuse the coal export carbon bomb and prevent the proposed coal export terminals and massive trains that would transport coal from the Powder River Basin through our state.

          Last year, Oregon Gov. John Kitzhaber wrote to the Bureau of Land Management and the Army Corp of Engineers asking for a comprehensive environmental impact review of the proposed coal ports in the Northwest – a review that takes into account the cumulative environmental impacts of all the proposed ports and the trains that would transport the coal from Montana and Wyoming through Oregon and Washington. As the new Governor of Washington – a Governor who stated that he is seeking ways to reduce the risk of climate change in his inaugural address – you can do no less.  Indeed, we hope, or rather, we are confident that you will take additional significant actions to prevent coal export from Washington ports.

____________________________________________________      

Name                      Address                             E-mail address

Extreme Weather Events! Get Used to Them.

Lots of news coverage of Frankenstorm, but not much mention of the role that our carbon economy plays in the production of this storm.

Hey, mainstream media,  can you say Global Warming?

Here is what Joe Romm has to say about Hurricane Sandy:

Why Hurricane Sandy Has Morphed into a ‘Frankenstorm’ — And Why We Should Get Used to Catastrophic Weather

Here’s how manmade carbon pollution is making many of the most destructive kinds of extreme weather events — Frankenstorms — more frequent and more intense.

October 28, 2012  |

 

This GOES-13 satellite image provided by the US Naval Research Laboratory shows the eye of Hurricane Sandy it churns just off the eastern coast of the US.
Photo Credit: AFP

 

 

 

What would you call an “ unprecedented and bizarre “ storm that is:

  • The “largest hurricane in Atlantic history measured by diameter of gale force winds (1,040mi)” [ Capital Weather Gang ]
  • “A Storm Like No Other” [National Weather Service via  AP]. NWS“I cannot recall ever seeing model forecasts of such an expansive areal wind field with values so high for so long a time. We are breaking new ground here.”
  • “Transitioning from a warm-core (ocean-powered) hurricane into an extra-tropical low pressure system, a classic Nor’easter, fed by powerful temperature extremes and swirling jet stream winds aloft to amplify and focus the storm’s fury” [meteorologist  Paul Douglas ]
  • Being fueled in part by “ocean temperatures along the Northeast U.S. coast [] about 5°F above average,” so “there will be an unusually large amount of water vapor available to make heavy rain” [former Hurricane Hunter  Jeff Masters ]
  • Also being driven by a high pressure blocking pattern near Greenland “forecast to be three standard deviations from the average” [ Climate Central  and CWG]
  • “Stitched together from some spooky combination of the natural and the unnatural.” [ Bill McKibben ]

Read the whole thing?  Good idea.    Alternet is carrying the story, but Joe Romm sets up shop at Climate Progress.

Big Storm Coming to the East Coast

Global warming?  Sure.  More storms, bigger storms.   Talk to folks who can vote in 2014 to elect the Climate Congress.  I don’t care if the folks you talk to are republicans, democrats or have never bothered to vote.  If they know in their gut that global warming is real and not good news, then we need to mobilize them.  The quadrennial electoral show is staggering to a finish, but at that finish we will not have a president or congress that understands that we need to address global warming.  Our next chance is the midterm election in 2014.  That campaign is underway.  I started.

Climate Congress 2013 – the Contract with Climate

  1. Carbon tax
  2. what else belong on the contract with the climate that a carbon tax does not address?

from WAPO:

 

 

 

Hurricane Sandy continues its march to the East Coast

 

View Photo Gallery — Hurricane Sandy: The storm has been raging up the coast after leaving more than 40 people dead in the Caribbean. A state of emergency has been declared in Virginia, Maryland, the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, New York, Maine, New Jersey and Connecticut.

 

 

 

 

By ,   Published: October 27 | Updated: Sunday, October 28, 7:47 AM

 

 A hurricane of enormous force continues to march north today, ready to hammer the D.C. region sometime on Monday and disrupt life for millions as it sweeps across eight states toward Canada.

From North Carolina to the coastal edges of Maine, public officials are urging residents to fortify themselves against Hurricane Sandy, which is expected to unleash torrential rains and winds of up to 75 mph, even for those residing as far as 100 miles from the storm’s center.

Read the whole piece?  Why not?  See if you can find any mention of global warming in the piece on Hurricane Sandy.  I scanned it quickly, lots of talk about shopping in advance of the storm, the campaigns adjusting to be elsewhere, nothing on global warming that I spotted.  It’s like Where’s Waldo?  Where is the mention of global warming in this article?  Let me know if you see it.

Climate Congress 2014 – The Contract with Climate

The election season is in full hysterical mode.  The dems are beating on progressives who are fleeing to Jill Stein and Rocky Anderson, the repubs are beating on the dems with all the corporate money and psycho-linguistic technology they can muster and behind the scenes somewhere we have a bunch of faceless (poor things, they don’t have faces) IT folks who are gearing up to do whatever they are supposed to do with the vote-counting technology to tabulate votes on November 6th.

Michael Connell will not be available to help with the information technology tasks in this election cycle.  His private plane crashed and he was killed before he was available to testify about the 2004 Ohio vote-counting, “man in the middle” controversy.

There is lots to worry about in this election cycle even with the tragedy of Michael Connell’s death in 2008.  But let’s get real, this election is in the can.  Yes, we should all work on getting out the votes for progressive candidates, for local initiatives that might produce change, but the change is not coming by defeating Romney, the change is not coming in this election cycle.

Our best progressive shot happens with the mid term election of 2014.   I believe we have three primary branches of govt here in the US of A.  The judicial is captured by 4 solidly corporate, reactionary justices, with a conservative swing vote held by Anthony Kennedy.   The remaining justices are solidly liberal, but are aging and out-numbered 5 to 4.  This is the 5 to 4 court, not the Roberts Court.  And it will be the 5 to 4 Court for a very long time.  Right wingers do not have to control the Senate to keep a Dem president from appointing a William O. Douglas or Thurgood Marshall type justice to the Court, they only have to obstruct appointments in a manner that the Dems will never do to a Republican potus.  Need evidence of that?  Samual Alito?  Clarence Thomas?  John Roberts?  Do these names ring a bell?  Yes, the dems borked poor Robert Bork, but that was a long time ago and poor Robert Bork had served Richard Nixon too well.  Robert Bork borked himself in the Saturday night massacre, he was just a late victim of that miserable public affair.

The pick at the top of the ticket in this election is a hobbesian choice.  Both of the candidates are firmly in the control of the big money folks, the have-mores as George W called them.   Romney might claim to be the candidate of the 53%, but that’s not true, he is the Emperor of Bain Capital.  Read’m and weep.

Obama?  Sad sack.  I voted for him once upon a time.  I didn’t believe in him at that time, but I was willing to give it a shot.  The Dems are always saying, please, just give us one more chance.  I thought why not? in 2008 and voted Obama.  I wanted Dean or Kucinich, but the Bainsters who control our political system are not going to allow that kind of option, so I voted Obama.  I used to say that the only republican I ever voted for as President was Bill Clinton, but now I have done it twice.  Fool me once, shame on me, fool me twice…    I won’t get fooled again or something like that, Bushisms are so complex in their inanity that they approach genius.

Here is an interesting video that makes the point that the electorate really is trying to choose between pepsi or coke for potus.  Tastes better, less filling, tastes better…

Leaves a bad taste.  Thanks to Slate, David Weigel, and Luke Rudowski at We Are Change for this work.

I will be back in a day or two to talk about Climate Congress 2014 – The Contract with Climate.

Top of the list?   Carbon Tax, baby!   A twofer.  We jam the environmental destroyers, the petro-bainsters and we fix the deficit in one fell swoop.   I love a fell swoop.

Ocean Report

A couple of items on things oceanic came to my attention this week.

NYT had a story on collapse of the cod fishery:

The Shocking News About Cod

The ideal fish for human consumption would mature quickly and reproduce in staggering numbers.

Courtesy Wiki Commons NOAA

This does not describe the Atlantic cod. Cod mature late — at 4 to 6 years old — and they can live as long as 25 years. Female cod do, in fact, produce astonishing numbers of eggs. But older cod lay two or three times as many eggs as younger cod. This means that a healthy cod population must include relatively large numbers of older fish.

For Op-Ed, follow @nytopinion and to hear from the editorial page editor, Andrew Rosenthal, follow @andyrNYT.

A recent survey of cod catches in Northern Europe shows exactly the opposite. Extrapolating from survey numbers, scientists at a British government fisheries agency estimate that there are nearly 200 million 1-year-old cod in the North Sea but only 18 million 3-year-olds. As for older cod, the numbers are shocking. The survey team estimates that in 2011 there were only 600 12- to 13-year-old cod, a third of which were caught, and not a single fish older than 13 has been caught in the past year.

Read the whole article?  Important stuff.

Paul Pickett in Oly shared this new NOAA app that shows sea level rise and coastal impacts. We have been talking in Oly about actions by the Washington State Department of Ecology.  DOE has blocked a shoreline plan in Jefferson County that prohibited pen fish farming.  This is the industrial practice of raising fish such as Atlantic salmon in pens.  We don’t healthy fisheries if we can raise fish to eat in pens.  Ecology is also stepping in on the the Olympia shoreline plan in ways that may help the Port of Olympia and thwart environmental action that has wide public support.  We are talking in Olympia about how regulatory agencies can be captured by the industries they regulate and what we can do about it.

I think we have to ask the right question and that question is “why would regulatory agencies thwart reasonable environmental actions?”  The answer is profit, capitalism; economic interests are in control and dictate to us all.  Disaster capitalism.  Disaster, capitalism.  Disaster. Capitalism.

Here is the sea level rise app.  NOAA is not a regulatory agency per ser, more of a pure science agency.  It’s harder to capture science agencies than it is to capture regulatory agencies who are able to weigh science against economic interests.

It’s kind of tragic and ironic that we are both depleting the ocean and increasing the ocean’s coverage of the planet at the same time. The Greenland ice cap is melting.  Start looking hard at the sea level rise application and plan accordingly.  There are going to be some opportunities for profit in the coming troubles.

Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts Viewer

NOAA Coastal Services Center

Features

  • Displays potential future sea levels
  • Provides simulations of sea level rise at local landmarks
  • Communicates the spatial uncertainty of mapped sea levels
  • Models potential marsh migration due to sea level rise
  • Overlays social and economic data onto potential sea level rise
  • Examines how tidal flooding will become more frequent with sea level rise

Overview

View the current status of the tool.

Being able to visualize potential impacts from sea level rise is a powerful teaching and planning tool, and the Sea Level Rise Viewer brings this capability to coastal communities. A slider bar is used to show how various levels of sea level rise will impact coastal communities. Completed areas include Mississippi, Alabama, Texas, Florida, and Georgia, with additional coastal counties to be added in the near future. Visuals and the accompanying data and information cover sea level rise inundation, uncertainty, flood frequency, marsh impacts, and socioeconomics.

Launch Now

Acknowledgements

The NOAA Coastal Services Center would like to acknowledge those organizations that provided direct content used in this tool or feedback, ideas, and reviews over the course of the tool’s development. Specifically the Center would like to acknowledge the following groups.

Here is the link to the main page for this NOAA app.